The One Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of Global Ecology and the Environment
The One Hundred Year Plan
for Comprehensive Governance
of Global Ecology and the Environment
 
(Draft of the 4th World Congress on Global Civilization)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 December 2013   
Moscow
 
The One Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems
 
Contents:
I.                    Transition of Human Civilization and the Destruction of the Ecology and the Environment and Ecological Systems
II.                  Fundamental Principles for Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems
a.       Principles for Cooperation Between States and Territories
b.      Principles for the Relative Independence of the “Comprehensive Governance Structure for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems”
c.       First and Foremost Principles for the Interests of Humankind
d.      First and Foremost Principles for Communication Involving Religions and Faiths
III.                Basic Aspects of Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems
a.       Controlling Population Growth, Adjusting Population Density, Increasing Population Quality
b.      Desalination and Freshwater Conservation
c.       Governance of the Dry Environment and Ecological Systems
d.      Governance of Biotechnology and Life Sciences
e.      Principles for Governance of Outer Space and Treatment of Extra-terrestrial
  Life                            
f. Governance of Military Resources
g. Governance of Political, Economic, Social, and Cultural Environments
h. Governance of Knowledge, Ethics, Psychological, and Faith-based Ecological
  Systems
IV.                Conceiving of the One Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
The One Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of Global Ecology and the Environment
 
(Draft of the 4th World Congress on Global Civilization)
 
The World Congress on Global Civilization is an international academic conference independently sponsored by the Organization for Promoting Global Civilization (OPGC). Each of the five continents of the world take turns in hosting the congress every four years. The conference has already convened three times to date.
 
The 1st World Congress was held in 2001 at Hilton Hotel Sydney, Australia when OPGC’s theoretical principles in “the Declaration of Global Civilization” were passed with near unanimity. The second congress was held in 2005 at the Millennium United Nations Plaza Hotel, New York, USA and unanimously passed OPGC’s “An Open Letter Proposing to the United Nations General Assembly A Discussion on the Establishment of a World Coalition Government.” As the World Health Organization was on the highest alert against the spread of H1N1, the 3rd World Congress was convened in a month of online meetings. The congress passed OPGC’s “Communication in Spirituality in the Global Age: A Proposal to the Religions of the World.”
 
The 5th congress will be held in 2017 in the capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. The conference will discuss and pass OPCG’s cultural principle “A Course in Global Civilization” (both popular and advanced editions of the textbook).
 
Today the 4th congress commences. The conference will discuss and pass OPCG’s “One Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of Global Ecology and the Environment.”
 
 
I. Transition of Human Civilization and the Destruction of the Ecology and the Environment and Ecological Systems
 
Approximately 5,000 years ago humans entered into an agricultural period and began an agricultural civilization. Five hundred years ago, in the wake of massive geographical discoveries, the opening of new sea routes, the expansion of colonization and trade, the resulting Renaissance, and revolutions in religion, humans entered into a period of commerce and labor, beginning a civilization of commerce and trade. This is what we refer to today as the industrial civilization.
 
The civilization of commerce and labor truly arose from England’s Glorious Revolution in 1688. This revolt caused the rapid mechanization of England’s handmade textile industry and the creation of an industrial civilization. Industrialization allowed England to rapidly gain power and easily overthrow the arrogant Napoleonic Empire. This caused the world to realize the great implications of industrialization for a country’s progress and growth of national power. Thus, England’s industrialization quickly radiated to France and the United States. With that, industrialization extended to Germany and Japan; later expanding to Russia (former Soviet Union), and the “four little dragons” of Southeast Asia, China, South America, and South Asia.
 
Just as the agricultural civilization had a complete system, the commerce and trade civilizations also have their own systems composed of many different elements. For the sake of brevity, but without sacrificing comprehensiveness, the compositional elements of commerce and labor civilization can be rationally broken down into the following nine points: 1. Rationalization of modes of thinking, 2. Human-oriented values, 3. Marketization of modes of exchange, 4. Industrialization of modes of production, 5. Popular benevolence in modes of allocation, 6. Urbanization of life-style, 7. Democratization of modes of organization, 8.  Legalization of modes of administration, 9. Globalization of the scope of activity.
 
It is clear that the commerce and trade civilization made humans part from passivity towards nature, the repetitive simplicity of the modes of production, the constriction of commodity exchange, vulgarity of material living, primitiveness of spiritual life, and family-based of social activity that was present in agricultural civilization.
 
However, from today’s perspective where the commerce and labor civilization has continued for five hundred years, we can see that nearly every one of main compositional elements of commerce and labor civilization promotes or deepens a hereditary virus. “Rationalization of modes of thinking” has destroyed humankind’s ethical sentiments and religious faith. “Human-oriented values” have lead to anthropocentrism and the indiscriminate slaughter of flora and fauna. “Marketization of modes of exchange” has resulted in profiteering, deception, market domination, waste of resources and venality. “Industrialization of the modes of production” has resulted in air, ocean, land, and river pollution and severe waste of natural resources to the extent that they are nearly exhausted. “Popular benevolence in modes of allocation” has implied that extant human abuse the power of industrialization, evilly depriving future generations of remaining natural resources. “Democratization of modes of organization” in reality means all of the aforementioned sins are not committed by states, monarchs or parties, but are the product of all humankind. “Legalization of modes of administration” without doubt, allows that criminals receive legal protection for the aforementioned crimes; and “globalization of the scope of activity” implies that these said atrocities have already, or are currently spreading across the entire world.
 
We can conduct a deeper layer of analysis with regard to commerce and labor civilization as follows: extending in length for five hundred years from start to finish, its “primary actions” are supreme over the gods and a thousand times more evil than demons. Its actors are “the state,” and the “motherland” that the seven billion of us have revered as our destiny and sworn to defend until our end.
 
The nine elements of commerce and labor civilization – “the nine changes” – once “nationalized” or “mother-nationalized,” imply that not only will the positive side of the commerce and labor civilization be further discounted, but also that the negative side will be further promoted.  For example, it will turn the reason of “rationalization of modes of thinking” into chop logic, and warp the humanism of “human-oriented values” into a “sole basis in countrymen,” even “sole basis in only one’s own countrymen.” The nationalization of the commerce and labor civilization will make the market in “marketization of modes of exchange” submit to chaos, the gloomy jungle of vae victus. It will turn the globe in “globalization of the scope of activity” into a pursuit of global domination, a battleground of striving for hegemony.
 
Logically it follows that states act in their own interests and in pursuit of happiness for its people. However, as humankind’s veins have been injected with a preparation called “statehood,” as a result, all emotions have become illusions, all actions have started to become monstrosities. Various ethnic groups were originally all part of humankind, separated due to “nationalization,” and thereupon became generations of enemies bearing knives against each other. Originally, they coexisted happily on a flourishing promised land; but with the introduction of a “the state,” these lands became territories of bitter struggles for power. “Do onto others as you would be done” was once a simple truth, and only due to the encroachment of “the state” did it thus come to be the curse: “do onto others as you wouldn’t be done.” It used to be that a person could die only once, but due to the conjuring of “the state,” man created the military capacity for damage that today could allow for each of our 7 billion to perish 70 times.
 
The commerce and labor civilization, a civilization so elegant, so despicable, so respected and so detestable, persisting in its ways as it has for 500 years, has turned the globe that was given to humankind by mother nature -- what is, as far as we know, the best land in the universe -- into the picture of disaster that we see today:
 
From the beginning of the Common Era until 1600 the human population increased from 300,000,000 to 600,000,000 – in sixteen hundred years there was only an increase of 300,000,000 people. In the mere ten years from 2000 to October 31, 2011, the human population increased by 1,000,000,000 to 7,000,000,000 and is expected to reach 15,000,000,000 by the end of this century.
Across the globe, 884,000,000 people don’t have decontaminated drinking water, 2,600,000,000 people do not have improved water sanitation, and 4,000,000,000 people don’t have access to a safe water supply.
95% of the blame falls on mankind’s malfeasance for climate change, brought about by the indiscriminate deforestation and slaughter of forests and animal, and repeated natural disasters.
61% of global lands are influenced by desertification. Furthermore, 5,000,000-7,000,000 hectares of land are being degraded every year.
The world’s coal reserves can only be mined for 100 more years; oil reserves have 50-90 years remaining. Gold, silver, copper, aluminum, and tin can only have 10 more years of mining left.
The rapid advancement of biotechnology is severely threatening the safety of grain and produce. Bioscience and technology, being even more influential, has directly launched an attack on humankind’s inherent quality, form, ethics and fate.
Top-of-the-line military weapons are currently being painstakingly developed in secrecy across many countries. The scale of production of and speed of manufacture of nuclear and chemical weapons, the most deadly and destructive types, is nearly out of control.
The new patterns and types of diseases are wreaking havoc across the globe. All manner of psychological diseases have already assaulted more than 90% of humankind.
 
Even more gravely, not only are the harmful viruses in the nine elements of the commerce and labor civilization increasing in severity, but the initiator of evil – “the state” – continues to swell in power to this day. For example, take the Kyoto Protocol’s effort to “sympathetically unite humankind.” Those powerful nations, great nations, wealthy nations, that persisted in picking and choosing policies to their advantage, dragging their feet, obstructing, cold-blooded and emotionless;the “for the good of all humankind” at United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, those “for the good of all humankind” powerful nations with gaping mouths, those great nations, wealthy nations just along for the ride, confusing right and wrong and shamelessly crossing that line, one after another ruining the conference.
 
The world’s ecological organisms have already succumbed to incurable disease called “commerce and labor civilization syndrome.” Many parts of the global environment have a cancer, “a country’s standard modes of thinking, value orientation, and behavior.”
 
We absolutely do not intend to curse “the state,” not slander the notion of motherland. “The motherland” organized the multitudinous disordered groups of individuals, families, ethnic groups into an organic unit fused by flesh and blood. It ushered in mutual goodwill, sincere unification, and cooperative civilization. What we mean is to inquire as to whether or not humankind today will be able to use “the state” to give each country’s citizens the wisdom and breadth of mind to overcome the malfeasant “state” that emerged with globalization and make “the state” turn to become a strong backbone and lever to elevate humanity’s existence and allow it to continue to advance in an era of globalization. 
 
It is said that prior becoming extinct, Atlantis’ civility and malady was about equivalent to ours today. However, we are luckier than they were, and won’t destroy ourselves as they did. In the midst of being worried and terror-stricken by the abuses of the commerce and labor civilization, people have found within their own civilized selves an effective way to withstand disease and cancer. This method began in the 21st century when human civilization transformed once again.
 
In 2001, humankind stepped into a new century and a new millennium. However, this much is merely a matter of chronology, and perhaps is without any meaning at all. That is to say, in the space of 300 years, more than 200 years of “proto-commerce and labor era” and nearly 50 years of the following “post-commerce and labor era” (the start of the 21st century and the founding of the World Congress on Global Civilization), our civilization – both in terms of its inherent nature and principle bodies or foundation and shape, once again completely transformed, stepped in to a new era of civilization. This brand new era various characteristics are completely different from those of the nomadic, agricultural, and commerce and labor civilizations. In terms of inherent nature of each civilization, the nomadic civilization of 5,000 years ago, the agriculture civilization of 5,000 or so years, and about 500 years of the commerce and labor civilization can all be considered“localized civilization.” In contrast, the current civilization that began with the 21st century can be considered “globalized civilization.” In terms of the principle bodies of each civilization, the aforementioned first three civilizations can be considered “civilization for classified groups of humankind,” whereas the current civilization is “civilization for humankind as a whole.” In terms of the foundation of each civilization, the first three civilizations can be considered “physical civilizations” shaped buy the mutual interplay between layers of material and energy, while the current civilization is an “information civilization.” In terms of the type of each civilization, the first three can be considered “spontaneous civilizations,” the current a “self-conscious civilization.” Finally, in terms of the form of each civilization, the first three can be considered “disparate civilizations” produced by the differentiation of the material, human nature, and religion, the current civilization can be considered to take “material, human, and spiritual as one” as a foundational framework for a “unified civilization.”
 
With regard to this evaluation, the permanent chairman of OPCG Zhang Shaohua published a monumental work The Second Declaration of Humanity in 1992 that clearly established the civilizations prior to the 21st century as “the First Declaration of Humanity” and defined the emergence of the current civilization as “the Second Declaration of Humanity.”
 
What is particularly notable is that this new era of civilization has an even deeper layer of defining characteristics. All modes and forms of the civilization produced by mankind during the first era of civilization all considered “the group” (or clan, tribe, ethnic group, country, alliance) as the most prominent part of civilization regarded “localized civilization” as their core attribute. Thus, the first era of civilization can be considered an “era of singularity in civilization,” while the current second eras of civilization are “eras of duality in civilization. ” This era regards both “group” and “class” identities as the most prominent features of civilization, regarding “globalized civilization” as the marker of quality. This civilization is “civilization of duality:” “locally organized” and “globally lead.”
 
This logic is very simple. In the first era of civilization, humankind developed what we view today as a series of habits, particularly bad habits and evil practices that did not disappear in the wake of the emergence of the second era of civilization. On the contrary, just as our descendants carry on our genes to the next generation, humankind carried multitudinous aspects from the first era of civilization into the second era. Speaking with this in mind, essential contradictions in humanity are present throughout each era of civilization, and especially in the beginning stages of each era.
 
Now that humankind has entered into an era of “global civilization,” it is compulsory that we transform our modes of thinking, values, life philosophies, codes of conduct and governments, economies, and societies and lift them onto the pathway of global civilization.
 
As the global civilization is a “self-conscious” civilization, it follows that humanity must self-consciously identity itself, take ownership of itself, plan itself, and advance itself.
As it can only persist in a specific environment and ecological system, humankind must first commence to plan and adjust its environment and ecology.
 
Based on this, we, OPGC, have resolved to convene a special conference: “On Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems and Thorough Adjustment of Human’s Present Systems.” The task of our conference is to discuss and pass “the One Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of Global Ecology and the Environment.”
 
II. Fundamental Principles for Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems
 
Prior to beginning to do something, people always formulate a few corresponding principles. Principles embody people’s desire for clarity and establishment of values in their actions. Early on, the international community established many specialized systems and professional organizations with regard to humanity’s ecological restoration and environmental governance, with many countries equipped with governmental departments and private organizations. However, it can be said that just as is the case with this congress, that exists for the sake of the happiness of the next five generations, or even the happiness of the next hundreds of years of humanity, our dependence on conducting up to a one hundred year commitment to ecological rejuvenation and environmental governance for our surviving globe and thorough combing and complete advancement for our greater existing system of humanity is historically unprecedented.
 
The fact is, in as early as 1998, the year that OPGC was established, the founding members, such as scholar Zhang Shaohua (China), Professor Zhai Mo (China), scholar Long Duan (Russia), scholar Mikhail Tikarento (Russia),scholar Norman Levine (United States), scholar David McLellan (Great Britain), director Tan Khoon Yong (Singapore), Mr. Michael Murphy (New Zealand), Mohsen Mohebi (Iran), Octavian Gakuru (Kenya), undertook a discussion in regard to this topic and determined the convening time and location of this congress. Having undergone ten years of careful contemplation and repeated discussion, we have finally drafted four basic principles for comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems.
 
a.       Principles for Cooperation Between States and Territories
 
In the Millennium Report of the United Nations UN Secretary General points out:
 
States need to develop a deeper awareness of their dual role in our global world. In addition to the separate responsibilities each state bears towards its own society, states are, collectively, the custodians of our common life on this planet—a life the citizens of all countries share. Notwithstanding the institutional turmoil that is often associated with globalization, there exists no other entity that competes with or can substitute for the state. Successfully managing globalization, therefore, requires—first and foremost—that states act in a manner consistent with their dual role. (43rd paragraph)
 
This congress’ proposal, “A One Hundred Year Implementation of Successive Planning on Governance of Global Ecology and the Environment,” is clearly an intensification and actualization of the UN’s above-mentioned demands. The “intensity” is in that this congress differs from the unfailing consent and compromise of the Millennium Report, and has demarcated comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems as something for which all of mankind and all states must “unconditionally unite together,” for which all related territories must “unconditionally cooperate.” Only then will it be possible to achieve such an expansive project. A state is never without argument despite its system of governance or its present state of development, thus the “actualization” of our proposal is that this congress’ topic of discussion differs from the airs of morality and political correctness of the Millennium Report, and has directed an exhaustively elaborate short and long term plans, specific indications, standards, methods of implementation, delegation of responsibility, and all other related issues relating to the comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems.
 
Choices of task determine its prospects. Therefore, in order to complete this task, we much establish an “Organization for Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems.” This organization must meet two conditions. First, it must achieve legal authorization in each state, obtain a percentage of legal financial support from each government, and obtain priority access to organizations, personnel, and technology support from each government. Secondly, this organization must consist of distinguished figures from the fields of science, politics, finance, religion, and philosophy.
 
This thinking has been forced out. Comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems implicitly requires considerable powers and factors for such a task. The UN does not possess adequate manpower, financial power, and technological strength. A state or international coalition does not only lack the manpower, financial power, and technological strength, but also do not have the corresponding qualifications and authority either. This is still not the most pressing matter. The truth is that it vexingly appears to each country that ecological and environmental problems (primarily and more gravely those that do not directly fall within a state’s sovereignty or territory, such as air and land pollution, global climate change, water pollution, desertification, various new diseases and the destruction of epidemics, development of experimental physics and biotechnology, research and development of space engineering, increase in population growth, changes in population density, and restriction of population growth) have already obstructed human progress and destroyed human civilization,  inhibit progress and restrict prosperity. A state or a coalition of states is powerless and incapable in the face of these ecological and environmental problems.
 
For more than ten years we have carefully examined the effects of various environmental protection agencies and non-governmental organizations to date. Numerous environmental protection agencies, nature sympathizers, and enthusiastic volunteers oppose whaling, adopt abandoned animals, act to prevent sandstorms, plant trees, and demine, yet, their passion and manual labor in comparison with result, incontrovertibly failed to fulfill their goals. This is because they lacked a specific structure that was created for generations of humankind, directed at the global environment and ecological system, global in scope, with detailed plans, organizations, and capabilities, and had full legal protection and authorization of all the states of the world.
 
Naturally, if there was a such a structure of governance targeted at the global environment and ecological systems, with and independent political scholars responsible for systems of governance and each state’s international organization and coordination, with independent fixed scientific research teams and the ability to deploy science and technology experts and implementation teams at any given moment, with each government, according to financial law, providing a steady stream of economic support, with one hundred years time, following a one-hundred year plan…this is absolutely foreseeable. Humankind can create a world in which all people live peacefully and work in contentment, a heaven on earth where states mutually exchange with each other.  We will be able to leave our descendants a thriving globe, full of life; we will back to our give our creator the brightest, human-made jewel in the cosmos.
 
Certainly, this is a grim history and a bitter reality. It is a solemn test to the breadth of emotion, scope of vision, height of boundaries, sharpness of knowledge of the people and governments living in the 21st century. The representatives of this congress need an answer. The 7 billion people of this world need an answer.
 
b.      Principles for the Relative Independence for the “Comprehensive Structure of Governance for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems”
 
Guaranteeing the relative independence of the “Comprehensive Governance Structure for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems, ” protecting the power of this structure, complying with its programs, deployment, and requirements, is the unshirkable responsibility of each governments and the general populace, and a precondition to the diplomatic mission of this structure.
 
In today’s world of status, sovereignty and political power for the interest of politicans and individual states, consciously protecting the relative independence of the “Comprehensive Structure of Governance for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems” is not only a question of political boundaries, but a question of political wisdom.
 
Because of this, at any given moment, when governance global environment and ecological systems are involved for the benefit of each state, is at stake, one’s sense of righteousness makes it impossible to refuse to safeguard the power of the “Comprehensive Structure of Governance for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems.” Must resolutely believe in the work of this distinguished structure, and honorably protect its independence. These are both the plan for comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological system’s highest and minimum demands for each state’s government, citizens, and disciples of various religions.
 
c. First and Foremost Principles for the Interests of Humankind
 
During the era of tribal states, the era of the nation-state, and the era of state alliances, the interests of the entire body of humankind were hidden, it could be said that they were even non-existent. Before the level of globalization reached its height in the 21st century, the interest of humankind as a whole was never in the scope of human consideration.
 
Logical analysis suggests that after we entered into the 21st century, we were not living in a “globalized era,” but a “global” one.  Recall, just after we moved into the 21st century in 2001, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, reminded humankind in the Millennium Report that: “the founders [of the post-war international system in the UN] set up an open and co-operative system for an international world. This system worked, and made it possible for globalization to emerge. As a result we now live in a global world. Responding to this shift is a central challenge for world leaders today.”
 
The slightly earlier “Declaration of the Global Civilization” also said “in the tribal era, the interest of the tribe is the highest; in the nation–state age, the interest of sovereign state is above all. In the twenty-first century with increasing human integration only the collective interest of the whole of humanity is the most fundamental welfare for every region, state, and individual. Therefore, the interest of the whole humanity is the first and foremost interest above all.”
The “Declaration of the Global Civilization” also stated:
all members of the human family, whether black, white, yellow, or red, male or       female, young or old, are sharing the same humanity. We are all equal. We all have      the same needs.   Therefore, the well-being of individuals is always fundamental to          the whole of humanity. Conversely, humanity is a whole integrated by individuals.    The safety of the whole is always fundamental for any individual. In other words,   Human Right and Race Right are the two interconnected poles of the humanity right     system. Between these two poles are sovereignty rights, government rights, and      civil rights including the Right of Territory, the Right of Air Space, the Right of Ocean        Space, the Right of Property, the Right of Military Commanding, etc. All these        rights are supplementary to and serve Human Right and Race Right. Therefore, all     other rights must be subordinate to and serve Human Right and Race Right. This is         the First and Foremost Order for those decision-makers of all kinds of rights in human society in the twenty-first century.
 
The Comprehensive Structure of Governance for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems has two main principles the must be strictly obeyed by the government and citizens of the world.  First, in regard to the “international era,” the interests of humankind as a whole must be our first and foremost priority. Second, in regard to the problem of global polarization, governance of the global environment and ecological systems must be our first and foremost priority.
 
d. First and Foremost Principles for Communication Involving Religions and Faiths
Religions and faiths have permeated the core of human life for at least 2,000 years and provide to cornerstones for our values systems, ways of looking at the cosmos, and human life. This has made believers express unrestrained, willing, and unwilling identification with one’s own religious or belief system.
 
However, many aspects regarding the environment and ecological systems, for example population control, birth planning, or plans for adjusting population density, life sciences and technology, the technologicalization of governance of psychological and spiritual realms, etc., all directly involve the creeds and canons of a variety of religions, and can oftentimes even be in opposition with them. For this reason, we have come up with this principle regarding priorities in religious communication.
 
This principle is to say that when our work first begins, communication with religious adherents must be incorporated into the plan for comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems. Thoughtful, equitable, patient, kind-hearted communication must have primary status and be our first and foremost priority.
 
We should be confident that governance of the global environment and ecological systems are fundamentally consistent with many religious beliefs. We should be confident that the modern age of technological civilization, the modern civilized nature, and the spirit of many religions already have many profound similarities. We should be confident that disciples of major religions and the individuals involved in the governance of the global environment and ecological systems have a similar recognition of the dire circumstances our world faces and similar demands for the governance of the global environment and ecological systems.
 
Of course, “communication” is not “compliance;” “priorities” is not are not “compliances.”
A follower of any religion must ultimately place greatest importance upon the greater circumstances, and ultimately must comply without condition.
 
III. Basic Aspects of Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems
 
Comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems is a matter that from antiquity and into the future has contained and will contain great importance for the earth.  This is an indication of humankind’s maturity, and the first time that humankind has faced this kind of “immense systematic plan.”
 
The “One-Hundred Year Plan for Comprehensive Governance of the Global Environment and Ecological Systems” includes four elements: “global,” “environment and ecological systems,” and “one-hundred year plan.” “Global” points to the scope, “environment and ecological systems” to the object, “comprehensive governance” to the task, and “one-hundred year plan” points to the goal.
 
The three main components of the “environment and ecological systems” are the natural environment and ecology (atmosphere, earth, forests, rivers, etc.), social-based environments and ecological systems  (government and economic systems, society, military, etc.), and man-made environments and ecological systems (culture, religion, ethics, knowledge, etc.). 
 
For convenience’s sake, this text will no further analyze, but will raise fundamental issues from within complexes of the environmental and ecological systems. Much of this is emphasis on certain issues, especially detailed plans for governance, evaluation, specific measures and other problems that the “Comprehensive Structure of Governance for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems” ought to address.
 
a.       Controlling Population Growth, Adjusting Population Density, Increasing Population Quality
 
In addressing problems facing the global environment and ecological systems, the first problem we are faced with is that of “population.”
 
The population problem is a global issue that rapidly gained the attention of various countries around the world. It was a great topic of discussion during the 1950s and 60s.
 
The population growth perspective: Approximately 2,000 years ago, the world population was about 300 million. In the year 1600 the population was about 600 million. However, in the wake of the end of the WWII, world population started to rapidly swell and the mortality rate dropped. As such, within less than 30 years, in the late 1970s, world population reached a historic peak. In the year 2000, world population reached 6 billion. Just about ten years later, on October 31, 2011, population sharply increased to 7 billion. The United Nation’s population department in the economy and society ministry predicts that if the birth rate goes unchecked, by 2050 world population will be 10.6 billion, 15 billion by the close of this century.
 
The surge in population in the latter half of the previous century had two causes. First, relatively permanent peace after the end of WWII and the changes in economic and societal establishments provided suitable conditions to give birth. For example, in just 60 the global mortality rate decreased by 60%: from 1.33% in 1950 to 0.46% in 2011. Second, improvements in material society and cultural life brought universal increases in human life expectancy. For example, in just 60 years average life expectancy increased by 20 years from 48 years in the 1950s to 68 years in 2011.
 
From the perspective of population structure, today’s outlook is even more shocking.
 
First, the problem of an aging population. We have discovered the aging of world population has incomprehensible characteristics. First, population aging typically occurs in developed countries with a relatively higher level of civilization. Originally, a more prosperous economic life indicated that one would birth more children; such is the case, a higher level of civilization meant that aging of the population was avoided. It is evident that the citizens of these developed countries are both “selfish” – solely preoccupied with their own enjoyment without regard for the deterioration of structure – and “foolish” – only developing their material culture ignoring civilization of the population and familial an societal civilization that it brings. Second, the aging of populations occurs in countries where family planning is within the realm of national law. Originally, preventing population aging was the goal of family planning, how could it turn to become a consequence? For example, China implemented a “One-Child Policy.” Within just 30 years, a thriving country of 1.4 billion people has become senile. Furthermore, take, for example, its capitol, Beijing -- where empty nests account for 70% of households. These numbers indicate that immeasurable economic burdens, societal problems, ethical problems, continually developing problems that only Chinese people can speak to. The United Nation’s population bureau in the economy and society ministry evaluates the aging population with the following summary: “an unprecedented problem, involving the entire world, profoundly complicated, to be with us a long time.” Certainly, in the face of such grim reality, such as that of an aging population, one’s heart burns with unrest.
 
Next, is the problem of supporting the dis-abled population. The “able” of “dis-abled” here indicated both intellectual and physical ability. Despite the increases in levels of civilization, science, and technology, hereditary and infectious diseases have been contained, a myriad of occupational diseases, earth-shattering depression, and AIDS, that cut through the world like a hot knife through butter, and the bizarre array of new blood-transmitted diseases brought about by industrialization and modernization and have caused unprecedented proportions of the disabled. Many experts have come to the verdict through extensive study that the sum of manpower, financial resources, time, stress required to support a disabled person requires at the efforts of a least two other fully functioning people. In light of this, we propose that we include the care and support of the disabled in our plan for comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems. For example, we should establish a specialized agency, that protects the world’s disabled by providing unified and specific, love, care, support, and governance with civilized spirit and morality for the world’s disabled.
 
The treatment of the world’s elderly, especially the disabled elderly is not only a problem that the comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecological systems will face for the next one hundred years, but also a fundamental issue that presses heavily on humankind’s level of civilization, moral boundaries, administirial philosophies. Developed countries, developing countries, and under-developed countries watch with grieving hearts as the empty nesting elderly can’t help but call their pets “son, ” “daughter,” or “baby;” as the disabled surrender their dignity begging on the streets, are met with humiliation, or even contemplate suicide.
 
As we face this poor pitiful earth, with only three mountains, six rivers, and one plot of land to spare, as we face the already crowed and continually expanding population of 7 billion people, especially as we face the myopic, selfish and self-interested, reverent of violence quality of humankind, we can only conclude that managing the global environment and ecological systems must start with managing global population problems.
 
b. Desalination and Freshwater Conservation
 
Water makes up more than 80% of the human body. Therefore, water, is essentially synonymous with human life. Water makes up more than 72% of the earth, which is as much as 1.45 billion cubic kilometers of water. There humankind fundamentally should not be met with water shortage problems. However, today’s water shortage is quickly become a more dire issue than food shortage.
 
Despite the fact that our earth is a “water planet,” only 75% the earth’s water is freshwater safe for human use. Furthermore, 70% of the 75% is sequestered layers of ice in the South Pole and Greenland, essentially unavailable for use. Thus, only .007% of freshwater can be directly consumed. And this isn’t even the worst problem.
 
According to the authoritative report by the 6th World Water Forum, every year are 3.5 million water related deaths, 80% of which have to do with improper collection and governance of wastewater. The report also stated that 884 million people don’t have access to purified drinking water, 260 million people don’t have access to water sanitation, and 4 billion people don’t have access to safe running water. Half of the world uses underground water, which has put a critical strain on underground water resources. 90% of natural disasters are water-related. The water flow of the entire world’s rivers is a 5% of what it was before. Major lakes and interior bodies of water have reduced in size, and more than half of European and North American wetlands no longer exist. Looking ahead yields even more cause for concern: in just 12 years, 3 billion people will face a critical water shortage. Water in more than 40 countries won’t have access to sufficient water. Water problems have become the crux of problem in the development of our plan.
 
The complex nature of the problem is in that world population is set to increase to 15 billion within the next one hundred years. With more that 60% of the world living in poverty, and the quality of life in developed countries not inclined to decrease, where are we going to obtain the water that we need for agriculture, industry, and consumption? From today onward we should protect our future generations and minimalize our water use.
 
As such, resolving the world’s water problems even more pressing than solving population problems. In the face of these circumstances, several hydrology experts have put forward the following basic route for addressing water conservation issue: desalination.  To date, Singapore, Australia, and several other countries have already undergone several decades of testing, and have come up with several breakthroughs. However, their testing has also resulted in some intimidating data: desalination’s high cost of production, at present, is too much for many countries to bear.
 
Therefore, there following three tasks must to completed to focus on increasing and protecting freshwater resources:
  1. Protect freshwater. However, how do we resolve the fact that many of the world’s rivers, lakes, and underground water systems are encroach upon or cross national borders. Thus, relying on “states” will not result in adequate protection of freshwater resources.
  2. Conserve water. However, how do we resolve the fact that some countries recognize the importance of water conservation, others do not. Some countries have established financial and technological capabilities for hydraulic engineering and water purification facilities, yet others do not.
  3. Desalination. However, how do we resolve the fact that among countries with a water shortage, some are land-bound, some have high plains, and many are impoverished; these countries do not have the basic resources required for desalination.
 
As such, the aforementioned three problems ultimately concentrate at the same head: only the establishment of a “Comprehensive Structure of Governance for the Global Environment and Ecological Systems” will be able to solve the world’s water problems.
 
c. Governance of the Dry Environment and Ecological Systems
 
Governance of the dry lands is comprehensive governance system that includes protection of arable lands, protection of mineral resources, desert governance, soil restoration, plant and animal protection, and use of mountain ranges that occurs on interior lands.
 
Arable land: There are currently 1.37 billion hectares of arable land on the planet, but 5-7 million hectares are lost annually. In many developed countries, as the population rapidly increases, the amount of arable uncultivated land is severely limited. The most recent report of the United Nations Environmental Program stated that in the past 45 years, 1.2 billion acres of the world’s arable lands suffered moderate to extreme degeneration, which was 11% of the world’s vegetated lands, 37.8% of Asian lands, 26% of Africa, and 13% of Europe. The report also stated that 3.27 billion acres of land are in drought, among which 2 billion acres have suffered desertification, a total of 61%, which directly threatens 100 countries and 8 billion people.
 
Therefore, protecting and increasing the available area of arable land, and increasing soil quality is an important task for the next 30 years. In reality, arable land is humankind’s breadbasket and shelter. If these problems are not addressed within 30 years, humankind will return to barbarianism.
 
Protection of mineral resources: Minerals can be divided into energy resources (oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and non-energy resources. Non-energy resources can be further divided into metals (ferrous and non-ferrous metals) and nonmetal minerals. The remaining quantities and distribution of these minerals has already been ascertained: 410,000 tons of remaining gold reserves primarily distributed between South Africa (69%), Russia (10%) and the United States (9%); 641,000 tons of remaining copper reserves primarily distributed between Chile-Peru (27%), the western United States (20%), Zambia- Zaire (15%), Russia-Kazakhstan (10%), Poland, and the Philippines; 850 billion tons of remaining iron reserves (400 billion already verified) primarily distributed between Brazil (17.5%), Russia (16.5%), Canada (11.7%), Australia (11.5%), Ukraine (9.8%), India, China, and France; 101.4 billion tons of remaining tin reserves primarily distributed between the two major tin belts of East and Southeast Asia. Additionally, experts have discovered much regularity in the distribution of minerals. For example, oil is primarily concentrated in belts of fractured earth or areas with shallow continental shelf, coal is primarily concentrated in the northern hemisphere in regions of high latitude, and iron minerals are primarily concentrated in ancient plains and plateaus.
 
As we entered into the proto-industrial era 200 years ago, humankind had already consumed a large portion of the earth’s minerals, among which a few were nearly completely exhausted. For example, the American Oil Industry Association predicts that oil reserves will only last for another 90 of human extraction. Another report states that oil and natural gas will only last for another 50 years. Statistical resources say that coal will only last for another 100 years of human extraction and copper, aluminum, tin, gold and silver will be completely mined out within the next ten years.
 
Therefore, protecting mineral resources is a matter of extreme importance. Humankind must regard this as the first and foremost task in the next ten years of managing the environment and ecological systems. If humankind is unable to successfully protect these various resources within the next 5-10 years (for example, by strictly preventing countries and international firms from extracting or searching for new mineral resources, strategically terminating all current mining, or immediately restricting all mining of soon-to be exhausted minerals), in the near future we will be met with remorse and our descendants will most certainly indignantly blame our selfishness and greed.
 
Deserts: There are twelve major deserts that cover 10% of the earth’s surface (the Taklaman in East Asia, the Thar in South Asia, the Karakum and the three deserts at the borders of Uzbekistan, Russia, and Kazakhstan in Central Asia, the An Nafud and Rub’ al Khali in Southwest Asia, the Sahara and Namibi in Africa, the Sonoran in North America, the Atacama and Patagonia in South America, and the Great Victoria Desert in Oceania). Much more serious is the critical “land desertification” brought about my human activity. Authoritative materials show that desertification has already impacted 43% of the earth’s surface!
 
Desertification is the composite reaction to humankind’s destruction of forests and natural water resources, industrial pollution-induced climate change, and various other unreasonable existent behaviors. Therefore, in order to control desertification, we must improve the fundamental ways and primary channels by which humankind interacts with the environment and ecological systems. For example, we can use the 30 years from today forward to control desertification, and use the next 50 to open up governance of existing deserts, to use them for ???
 
Mountain ranges: The surface area of the earth is 510 million square kilometers, land area consisting or less than 20%. Mountain ranges make up 30.98% of the earth’s land area. There are four major mountain ranges: the Cordillera in North America, the Himalayas in Asia, the Alps in Southern Europe, and the Atlas Mountains in West Africa.
 
Humans have not yet utilized more than 95% of these mountain ranges. In the wake of the normalization of modern transportation tools and development of climate control technologies, mature development technologies, improvement of drought-resistant technologies, at least 30% of these mountain ranges can be opened up for human use. This 30% implies that humankind has acquired a completely new habitat.
 
As for plant and animal protection and soil restoration problems, they have already become hot topics of today’s world. There is no need to say anything more.
 
d.  Governance of Biotechnology and Life Sciences
 
From a scientific analysis standpoint the life sciences can be assigned to the same category as biotechnology. The only difference is that biotechnology research has to do with humans and animals; more directly involves human life, and is more complicated, and thus, more alarming.
 
The scientific community often refers to the 21st century as “the century of biology” or “the century of life sciences.” This understanding is profound. However, we should supplement this truth. The 21st century is a century that requires serious governance of biotechnology and life sciences. Without this supplement, biotechnology, life sciences and technology are very likely to put humankind into a realm beyond redemption.
 
Biotechnology. According to the definition of the U.S. National Science and Technology Council, biotechnology is the “application of technologies, such as recombinant DNA techniques, biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, genetics and genetic engineering, and cell fusion techniques, using living organisms, to manufacture products.”
 
Humankind’s use of biotechnology has a long history. Dating back to 10,000 years ago, the choice of plant seeds in agriculture, selection of animal species domestication are both examples of biotechnology that date back to 10,000 years ago; the use of fermentation technology 6,000 years ago, the use of mold to heal wounds, and China’s Ge Hong’s use of chrysanthemum to cure smallbox 700 years ago are all biotechnolgy as well.
 
In the strictest sense, biotechnology began in 1797 with the advent of the smallpox vaccine.
In 1928, mankind developed the first antibiotic - penicillin. World War II, hindered the development of biotechnology, but uncontiably allowed for the development of a number of heinous chemical and biological weapons.
 
After WWII, biotechnology had a long period of development. In the 1950s scientiest focuses research on the smallest unit of all organisms, cells, and that which controls the characteristics of cells, genes. They achieved a major breakthrough. By 1970s, humanskind had already mastered the technology of recombinant DNA technology and cell fusion. Since the beginning of 1980s, a new industry - the biotechnology industry – sprang up. Today, biotechnology has radiated to the pharmaceutical, agricultural, environment, food processing, and chemical industries. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 155 medicines or vaccines that are the products of biotechonolgy. In the field of agriculture, humankind has use genetic modification to breed new types of papaya, tomatoes, corn, rice, soybeans. Therefore, many scientists believe that the biotechnology industry will surpass the information age and serve as the new engine of economic development in the 21st century.
 
However, from today forward humankind must include biotechnology and its products and industries in the plan for comprehensive governance of the global environment and ecologial systems. Our reasons for this are abundant. For example, genetically modifed plants are a serious threat to non-targeted plants and organisms, have already critically impeded biodiversity, and have produced genetic drift and gene pollution. Additionally, genetically modified food can potentially produce toxins that can be left behind in humans and animals and can potentially create new viruses or diseases. The recombinant nature of genetically modified raw food materials can cause a shift in the body’s allerigies. When soybeans developed by an American company were introduced to Brazil to improve soybean nutrition, 8/9 tested suffered an allergic reaction. Also, most importantly, as we are sad to predict, anti-society biotechnology experts,  countires with backward military technologies, or merecenary industrialists, will use the guise of biotechnology to develop biological weapons, a “food weapon,” to bring disaster on society and scourge all other nations. For example, the president of a South American country once publicly announced that he and six other leaders were suffering from cancer due to American biological weapons. Private individuals in China and Africa have also accused the United States of using genetically modified foods against them for population abatement.
 
Life Sciences. (what is generally referred to as life sciences by the scientific community). Life sciences are composed of three main components: intrinsic life sciences, life technologies, and life sciences industry. Here, we use the progress of life sciences and meaning as an example.


The initial mushrooming development of life science began after the Second World War. In 1952, U.S. scientists successfully cloned a tadpole. April 25, 1953, the British magazine "Nature" published James Watson and Francis Crick on a paper stating that the genetic material DNA (deoxyribose nucleotide) has double helix structure. This paper marked the true beginning of humankind’s exploration into the life sciences.
 
September 15, 1965 marked the first time that China synthetically produced biologically active bovine insulin. During the decade from the 1960s to 1970s, the Chinese scientist Tong Dizhou also successfully cloned a carp. In the 1990s, scientists from six countries - the U.S., Britain, Germany, France, Japan, and China (later added) – began the Humane Genome Project. After 13 years of collaboration, they sequenced 99% of the human genome, or about 3 billion genetic sequences. On February 24, 1997, the Roslin Institute (UK) announced that in they had produced the world’s first clone, “Dolly,” using a six-year-old ewe’s somatic cells in July of the previous year. On April 5, 2004, an Italian doctor, Antonio S. announced that he had successfully cloned a human embryo, and that the fetus had been implanted in a woman’s womb for 8 months. In May of that year, he announced that three of his cloned embryos were developing smoothly. In August 2004, a Chinese scientist, Xu Rongxiang, announced that his team has replicated 55 different human organs and intended to complete replication of all 206 human organs within two years (even if these organs had minimal bioactivity).
 
Today, life sciences are decoding the attractive question of how much genetic material is required to support the creation, development, and maturation of human life. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated a new program, “From Genomes to Life.” If we wish for this to be the case, we must re-write out creation myths that state “god created man.” More importantly, there are deep implications for humankind’s self-identification, understanding of disease, transformation of pharmaceuticals, quality of life, and life expectancy with every year that the life sciences progress. It should be said that life science and technology has brought the days when science fiction becomes reality, as in the U.S. Film The 6th Day, even closer.
 
However, as the UN International Convention Against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings proposed on March 4, 2002, humankind must resist scientific research on human cloning. Allowing for any un-regulated continuation of life science and technology could threaten human rights, ethical considerations, population issues and societal order and wreak havoc upon the intrinsic qualities of humankind and civilization. Therefore, we should include each country’s life sciences, industries, and products in the Plan for Comprehensive Governance of Global Ecology and the Environment. There is concern that one day a few malevolent and low-spirited scientists might use cloning technology to produce kinds of technology that will harm the integrity of human life; that the life sciences industry will produce an idealized idol or child, and that cloning will extend human life indefinitely.
 
The scientific community has strictly maintained rights to intellectual privacy. Science and technology have the power to defend technological privacy, and the science and technology industries have the power to protect industry secrets. Togeth